Sunday, November 25, 2018

What you should know about lightheadedness

Lightheadedness is when you are having a feeling of faintness, dizziness, or you are close to passing out. It can occur alongside vertigo, which affects balance and makes you feel as if you or your surroundings are spinning. Although lightheadedness and vertigo can feel similar, they have different causes.
Experiencing some episodes of lightheadedness is normal. In most cases, these episodes will pass quickly, especially if a person sits or lies down to rest.

Causes of lightheadedness 

✔️The most common cause of lightheadedness is orthostatic hypotension, which is a sudden drop in blood pressure when a person stands up.
✔️Positional changes, especially quick ones, divert blood flow temporarily from the brain to the body. It is more likely that this will result in lightheadedness when you are dehydrated or ill.

The feeling usually passes quickly, especially if a person sits down again.

Other common causes of lightheadedness include:
✔️illnesses, such as the cold or flu
✔️altitude sickness
✔️prolonged exposure to hot weather
✔️low blood sugar
✔️alcohol, tobacco, or drug use
✔️certain medications

Sometimes, lightheadedness may have a more severe underlying cause, such as:

✔️heart attack
✔️inner ear disorders
✔️internal bleeding
✔️blood loss
✔️neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis
✔️conditions that affect blood flow
✔️head injuries
✔️eating disorders

If lightheadedness is due to a more serious underlying condition, a you will be experience additional symptoms.

Home remedies

If you are is prone to experiencing dizziness or lightheadedness, you can use the following tips to reduce you risk of falling or fainting:
✔️Getting up slowly after sitting or lying down.
✔️Drinking lots of water, especially in hot weather or during exercise.
✔️Eating or drinking something sugary or with simple carbohydrates when feeling faint.
✔️Lying or sitting down until the episode passes.
✔️Getting enough sleep.
✔️Avoiding caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol.
✔️Limiting salt intake.
✔️if you thinks that their medication may be causing lightheadedness should speak to your care giver.

Treatment for lightheadedness 

While lightheadedness does not usually require medical care, your care giver may sometimes recommend one of the following treatments, depending on the underlying cause:

➡️physical therapy
➡️compression stockings to keep blood from pooling in the legs

Medications could include:

▶️anti-anxiety medications
▶️antinausea medications
▶️medications for migraines
If your care giver recommends physical therapy for lightheadedness, a physical therapist is likely to teach you exercises to improve your balance.

In people who have lightheadedness due to anxiety, a care giver may recommend psychotherapy or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to help you manage this condition. A therapist may provide other coping mechanisms to reduce your stress levels.

However, it is essential to seek emergency medical attention for lightheadedness or dizziness when one or more of the following symptoms accompany it:
➡️weakness on one side of the body
➡️facial drooping or numbness
➡️slurred speech
➡️chest pain
➡️pain in the arm, neck, or jaw
➡️sudden severe headache
➡️numbness or inability to move the arms or legs
➡️vision changes, such as double vision
➡️a rapid or irregular heartbeat
➡️You should also report to hospital immediately if lightheadedness occurs following a head injury.


Lightheadedness is a common experience, and it usually resolves very quickly with no lasting effects. People who frequently experience lightheadedness can usually manage the symptoms at home.
In some cases, lightheadedness may occur as a result of an underlying medical cause, in which case a person is likely to experience additional symptoms.
Anyone who has concerns about lightheadedness should speak to a health professional.

Thanks and stay blessed.

Resources: MNT

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Tuesday, November 13, 2018

Family planning methods - advantages and disadvantages of each

Adults, who are sexually active, regardless of age and race should be aware of family planning options. The World Health Organization, for one, does not confine family planning as a pregnancy prevention method alone.

According to them, it is about planned conception and making sure that each newborn is wanted.

Family planning makes use of birth control techniques to primarily decide the number of offspring a family will have and the best time to have each one.

The decision of which birth control method to use is often based on health concerns, habits, and vital personal preferences like religion.

While only abstinence assures complete pregnancy prevention, most contraceptive methods are highly effective especially when correctly practiced.

What are the commonly used family planning methods?

1. Birth Control Pills

Birth control pills are oral contraceptives that must be taken daily. The method is often recommended for both women who are religious in remembering daily doses and those who desire to restore fertility quickly.


Aside from its birth control properties, the pill also has health benefits. Both progestin-only and combination pills lighten periods, reduce the intensity of menstrual cramps, and lessen the possibility of ectopic pregnancies.

The combination pill specifically helps prevent bone thinning, acne, ovarian cysts and cancers, breast cysts, endometrial cancers, infections in the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, anemia, PMS, and iron deficiency.

Women on the pill can get pregnant immediately after stopping it- one of the reasons why most women prefer the method. Also, taking the pill is made easier to remember with easy to bring small pill packs.


The most popular thing that women don't like about birth control pills is the daily routine of taking it. The use of alarms and reminder apps or pill pack just next to you may help in remembering, but not a complete assurance. Also, like other medications, pills have their own set of side effects.

While they usually go away after a couple of months, most women on pills experience changes in sexual desire, bleeding between periods, nausea, and sore breasts.

2. Barrier Methods

Diaphragms, female and male condoms, as well as cervical caps all belong to the barrier family planning methods. Basically, they work in preventing the sperm from getting close or in contact to the egg.

For the methods to be effective, these must be anchored before the actual copulation takes place. While thousands do not like the methods because somehow it inhibits spontaneity, barriers prevent the spread of diseases as well as promote sharing of birth control responsibilities.


Barrier methods are simple to use, widely available and must be used before intercourse only. They protect both parties from possible spread of sexually transmitted diseases and, often, are not contraindicated against most allergies.

Female condoms, specifically, are unlikely to tear even during the roughest sexual techniques and can be inserted many hours before the sexual intercourse.


It is extremely rare to use the male condoms perfectly as they are easily torn apart. Also, frequent users report reduced arousal during sexual intercourse with the use of it.

Female condoms, on the other hand, is easily dislodged and may result to the penis inserting between the vaginal wall and the condom instead. There were circumstances where women report a “noisy” method experience during the intercourse.

3. Long-term Contraceptive Methods

For individuals who would want to get pregnant in the future, but are not into regularly prepping up against contraception, long-term methods are the best tools to use.

The methods include vaginal ring, contraceptive shots, intrauterine device or IUD, and implantable rod. All these are not easily reversible and non-hormonal. However, fertility immediately returns when the woman decides to discontinue its use.


The long-term effect of not having to remember daily routines is the biggest advantage of using these methods. It is extremely effective in preventing pregnancy although a few methods halt menstrual periods.


The long-term contraceptive methods do not protect either of the parties from contacting sexually transmitted infections. Also, most of these methods require surgeries for both the insertion procedure and the removal of it.

While there are rare instances of infections in areas of tool implantation, the most common side effects include weight gain, nervousness, irregular menstrual periods, hair loss, and episodes of depression.

Most importantly, it is not for use of all women. Those with maintenance medications are discouraged from using any of the long-term contraceptive methods.

4. Natural Family Planning (NFP)

NFP is the sole option that produces no negative health impact and is completely free.

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists explained that NFP only necessitates full awareness of a woman’s body's cycles especially when she is the most fertile.

When the main goal of copulation is to produce pregnancy, intercourse during the fertile times is the way to do it. However, if it is for avoiding pregnancy, the practice of abstinence during periods of fertility should be done.


The healthiest fertility regulation method, natural family planning neither interferes with the menstrual cycle nor make use of chemicals and hormones that pollute the environment.

NFP is also easy to use and familiarize and is highly effective amongst women regardless of a woman’s stage of reproductive life.

Both culture and religion permit the use of natural family planning because of its moral principles, while constantly promoting better couple communication.


The primary disadvantage is abstinence when a woman’s biology is the most interested in being intimate. For most couples, it requires a huge lifestyle change. Also, the practice of NFP needs training from a healthcare professional to establish the unique physiology of a woman’s cycle.

Maternal health is one of the biggest factors why effective family planning campaign is being pushed worldwide. It revolves around the holistic condition of a woman from pregnancy through recovering after giving birth.

While it is true that motherhood is a fulfilling and positive journey, millions of women associate the experience with medical complications, emotional suffering, and death.

When women are given the chance to space their pregnancies and limit it through their personal choice of contraceptive method, they are also given the right to a healthy well-being and pleasant motherhood.


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Sunday, November 4, 2018

8 Causes Of Pain After Sexual Intercourse In Men

Penis pain after sex is a common problem in young men. Sometimes, the pain do not last long. It may rob the individual off the pleasure. It may be necessary to seek medical help, if you do experience it.

Causes may include;
1. Prostatitis: Prostatitis can lead to pain that occurs during sex, ejaculation or after sex.

2. Peyronies disease: A condition when the penis bends or curves, usually when it is erect. The bending may also be due to inflammation or abnormal scar tissue.

3. Infection in the prostate, bladder, urethra or seminal vesicle can cause intense burning after ejaculation. STDs are cause of sexual pain in men e.g Gonorrhea.

4. Interstitial Cystitis: Chronic inflammatory bladder condition. Men with this may experience pain during sexual intercourse.

5. Psychological problems e.g Stress, anxiety, emotional or depression may cause sexual pain. Pain may occur as a result of having anxiety related to sex or intimacy. Being a victim of sexual can manifest in sexual pain.

6. Prolonged sex: During too hard and too long repeated friction, the shaft and the head of the penis rubs up against vaginal walls and it may cause painful sensation after.

7. Lack of lubrication/dryness. Dryness of the woman's genital can increase friction during sex.

8. Injuries or fracture: Any wrong manipulation or bending may lead to penis fracture, dislocation or bruising.

Seek expert help if you do experience it!

Saturday, November 3, 2018

Peptic Ulcer - What You Should Know

peptic ulcer and causes

When I mention Ulcer, I am sure this 'Medical Term' won't be sounding strange to your ears. An average adult knows what Ulcer is and can even describe its most common symptom (pain in the abdomen or chest burn).

But do you know that Ulcers can develop anywhere in the body? Yes! Don't be surprised.

This is because Ulcer is a medical term to describe any form of sore.

This leads me to properly tell you that there are other Ulcers that could be located at other places (e.g. the Foot, Cornea of the Eyes, Skin, Mouth, Gums etc) in the body and one of these is the 'Peptic Ulcer' which most people only know as 'Ulcer'.

'Peptic Ulcer' is called Peptic because the Ulcer is caused by acid.

That established, I would have you know that 'Peptic Ulcer' mostly occur in either of these two places; the Stomach (Gastric Ulcer) or the Duodenum (Duodenal Ulcer).

So what causes 'Peptic Ulcer'?

You may have wondered for so long what actually caused the several Ulcer pain attacks that you have had in times past or you have a friend or family relative that has a Peptic Ulcer.

Well here is where I get to tell you the cause of this common yet unknown enemy😑.

The popular belief is that Peptic Ulcers are caused by Not eating early, eating spicy/hot foods, drinking acidic fruits etc.

Medicine once thought these were the causes too because coincidentally many patients had Ulcer pain complaints after these few things highlighted above. But medicine began to look into other possibilities because when even after eating on time, not eating spicy foods etc, these people still had these complaints.

Due to research we now know that Peptic Ulcers develop due to the action of a bacteria known as Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori for short)

This bacteria gets into the Stomach via dirty hands, foods, faecal contents etc. This could even be from childhood but most people don't feel any symptoms till they are older.

H. Pylori, when it gets into the Stomach starts to bore/work its way into the mucous layers of the Stomach (This mucous layer protects the Stomach from its own acid content (HCl) and other digestive juices).

Note: Certain cells in the Stomach have the responsibility of producing an acid (Hydrochloric Acid) that helps in digestion of food, kills bacteria from foods we eat etc.

Most times this bacteria gets under the mucous membranes and is protected by it so that antibiotics and antibodies cannot get to it this accounts for why it can stay for so long and keep causing damage.

Note that antibodies are the body soldiers that help fight invading micro organisms. Antibiotics are more like their synthetic form.
So let's get this, what H. Pylori does is like eating up a place that is covered by a sheet of protection from an acid, and once this protective sheet is eaten off, others surfaces underneath the sheath is directly open to the acid

The exposure to the acid leads to:

Symptoms of peptic ulcer 

-Pain in the upper part of the belly.

-Chest burns


-Feeling of fullness



Another factor that leads to ulceration of the Stomach lining is long term use of Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) e.g. Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Naproxen etc.

READ ALSO: What you should know about Aspirin

NSAIDS are a class of analgesics that work very effectively in reducing pain and inflammation but sadly one of their side effects is Ulcer formation due to many mechanisms which I may  not delve into because of complexity. These side effects become so pronounced when they are used for so long.
This is why I pity those who ignorantly combine drugs (painkillers for example) most times they don't know that they may be taking the same drug in different formats or names.

Another identified cause of Ulcer is the  Zolinger Ellison Syndrome (ZES)

In this syndrome there is a growth (tumor) in the Duodenum (beginning part of the intestine) or pancreas. These tumors known as Gastrinomas secrete Gastrin which causes the stomach to produce a lot acid this in turn increases the chances of developing an Ulcer.

The post is becoming very long, why don't you join me in my next post as I talk about
- How to treat/manage Peptic Ulcer;
- The myths and facts about Peptic Ulcer;
- Frequently asked Questions about Peptic Ulcers.

Meanwhile, I hope you have learnt something new from the few things I have shared.

You don't have to live with that Ulcer pain forever. I look forward to seeing you in my next post.

I would always remind you to stay consciously healthy.
I care about you and your health.
Stay healthy

Feel free to make your comments and share the posts to educate someone else.

Have a great day.

Written By: Odunoye O.S ( RN) 

Saturday, October 27, 2018

Signs and symptoms of infertility - men and women

It is not uncommon for people to experience signs of infertility. This may be stressful, as many people show no direct symptoms of infertility until they try to conceive.
Infertility affects both men and women. According to the Office on Women's Health , about a third of issues with infertility comes from women, and another third starts with men. The final third may be due to a combination of both, other factors, or unknown causes.
In this article, learn about signs of infertility in both men and women, as well as when to see a doctor.

Signs of infertility in women

In women, signs of infertility may include:

o Not getting pregnant
The primary sign of infertility is not getting pregnant after trying for a certain length of time.
A doctor may diagnose infertility if a woman has not become pregnant after 1 year of trying.
If the woman is over the age of 35 years old, she may be infertile if she has not become pregnant after 6 months of trying.
o Obesity
A 2018 study found that obesity might negatively affect reproductive health.
Women with obesity have a lower probability of conceiving and are at a higher risk for issues during pregnancy than those without weight issues.
o Pain during sex
Pain during sex, or dyspareunia, can be a sign of an underlying health problem that may influence a woman's fertility. Examples of such health issues include infections, endometriosis, and fibroids .
o Heavy, long, or painful periods
Heavy periods may indicate an underlying condition affecting fertility.
Some women experience a few days of light flow, while others regularly experience heavy periods and painful cramps.
Women who experience very heavy, painful periods may be showing signs of endometriosis, a condition where tissues usually found in the womb are present elsewhere in the body.
o Endometriosis is a risk factor for infertility.
Other symptoms of endometriosis include:

chronic pelvic pain (not only during menstruation)
pain during sex
back pain
irregular periods and spotting
bowel problems or pain with bowel moveme
Dark or pale menstrual blood
If menstrual blood is regularly paler than usual, this may be a cause for concern. Menstrual blood is usually bright red at the beginning of a person's period and may get darker over the following days.
Passing very dark, old blood at the beginning of a period can also be a sign of endometriosis. If a person is experiencing other symptoms, they may wish to speak to your care giver.

o Irregular menstrual cycle
The length of a menstrual cycle varies between individuals and over time. However, many people have a regular cycle, meaning that the time between each period is roughly the same.
Having an irregular cycle, including missing periods, can contribute to infertility, as it means a woman may not be regularly ovulating.
Ovulation is when the ovary releases an egg.
Irregular ovulation can be due to many issues, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, being underweight, and thyroid issues.
o Hormone changes
Signs of hormonal changes can be nonspecific, and a person may not notice them or know the underlying cause. A doctor can test for some hormonal issues.
Fluctuations in hormone levels can cause:

unexplained weight gain
severe acne
cold feet and hands
reduced sex drive or loss of sexual desire
nipple discharge
facial hair in females
thinning hair on the top of the head
Underlying medical conditions
Other contributing factors that may affect fertility in women include:

o damage to the fallopian tubes or ovaries
o premature menopause
o endometriosis
o cancer and cancer treatments

Signs of infertility in men

Signs of infertility in men can include the following:
Hormonal imbalances
A doctor can test for infertility in men.
A variety of hormonal imbalances can affect a man's fertility.
Testosterone is a key hormone for male fertility, so problems with the testes that produce this hormone may lead to infertility.
Two hormones signal to the testes to make sperm and testosterone: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone.
The pituitary gland produces these hormones, so any problems with this gland may also influence infertility.
Erectile dysfunction
Hormonal changes, psychological factors, or physical issues may make it difficult to get or keep an erection.
If this becomes a regular occurrence, it may interfere with sexual intercourse or be a sign of an underlying issue.
Problems with ejaculation or ejaculate
Having difficulty ejaculating or noticing changes in the ejaculate, such as a drop in volume, may also be a sign of an underlying issue related to a man's fertility.
Changes in testicles
Healthy testicles are an important aspect of male fertility. Small or firm testicles that feel "tight" may be another sign of hormone issues.
On the other hand, swollen, painful, or tender testicles may be a sign of an underlying issue, such as an infection, that can also impact sperm quality and male fertility.
Research from 2015 noted that many studies link obesity in men with infertility.
Obesity can increase the risk for other conditions that may impact a man's fertility such as sperm quality and sexual dysfunction.

Other risk factors may also contribute to infertility in both men and women. These include:
smoking tobacco or marijuana
drinking alcohol
history of sexually transmitted infections
poor diet

When to see an healthcare giver
Anyone experiencing signs of infertility and who has been trying to conceive for more than a year (or 6 months if older than 35 years of age) may want to speak to a care provider for a thorough diagnosis.
Sometimes there may be simple ways to make lifestyle adjustments to improve fertility, while other underlying causes may require treatment.
Even after an infertility diagnosis, there may still be ways to conceive that people can discuss with their care provider.

Resources: healthline

Sunday, October 21, 2018

Nigerian Youth And Drug Abuse - Today's Leader Forum

PRESENTER: Olanrewaju Femi Arowosegbe
DATE: 19/10/2018


It is a popularly held belief that the youths of any nation are the leaders of tomorrow. They are the vehicles through which positive changes can be realized. This is why many tend to invest on the future development of its youths.

The term ‘Youth’ varies in definition, form and approach. A youth as defined by the National Youth Policy is any individual who is a citizen of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, between the ages of 18-35. This age group occupies the transition between childhood and adulthood exhibiting attributes of childhood dependence and independence of adulthood (Muraskin, 1999).

Furthermore, the hope and aspiration of any society lie on the calibre of youth in that society. However, Uthaymeen (2002) argued that if we take an examining look at the youth, in Nigeria, we will be able to conclude that youths generally are of categories; the upright youth, the corrupt youth and the confused youth.

Williams, (2016) maintained that, over 6 million bottles of codeine are sold on a daily basis in the NorthWest part of the country. National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) report of 2010 also shows that over 11% of people in the North-West zone use drugs. He also said due to the rise in drug addiction, young people make use of cough syrups to make themselves high.

Consequently drug addiction is a case peculiar with people between the ages of eighteen and twenty.


DRUG: A drug is, in the broadest sense of the term, is a chemical substance that has known biological effects on humans or other animals. In pharmacology, a drug is "a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being."

DRUG ABUSE: Drug abuse  (as preferred by the world health organization), is defined as “a state of psychic or physical dependence, or both on a drug, following administration of the drug on a periodic or continuous basis.” Also can be define as an illegal use of drugs

DRUG ADDICTION: This is a state of period or chronic intoxication produced by repeated consumption of a habit-forming drug, leading to development of a psychological and physiological dependency on the drug.

DRUG HABITUATION: This is a continues abuse of drugs or constant taking of a particular dosage of drug without developing physical dependency I.e the victim becomes upset and irritable without the drug.

DRUG RESISTANCE: Property of a disease-causing organism that allows it to withstand drug therapy. i.e the drug that does work for a person before is no more working form him or her.

Common Abused drugs.

  1. Alcohol. 2) Cocaine. 3) Sedative, hypnotic, or ant anxiety drugs. 4) marijuana. 5) Indian hemp. 6) prescription drugs etc.

Signs and Symptoms of Drug Abuse.

Cravenness: Here you see the person craving for a particular drug and becomes increasingly upset if deprive of it, and he/she use any means to get that drug.

Tolerance: the person here wont be satisfied again with starting dose, he or she will want to increase the dose progressively to produce the same effect at the beginning.

Suffering:  This is usually experience either by the drug Addict, or the Society he or she belongs or both. And so on.

Effect of Drugs Abuse

Medical effects: Drug abuse can lead to a variety of respiratory problems. Smoking cigarettes, for example, has been shown to cause bronchitis, emphysema and lung cancer. Marijuana smoke may also cause respiratory problems. The use of some drugs may also cause breathing to slow, block air from entering the lungs or exacerbate asthma symptoms.

Physical effects: Injuries due to accidents (such as car accidents), physical disabilities and diseases, and the effects of possible overdoses are among the health-related consequences of teenage substance abuse. Disproportionate numbers of youth involved with alcohol and other drugs face an increased risk of death through suicide, homicide, accident, and illness (The Drug Abuse Warning Network DAWN 2011).

Mental effect: Mental health problems such as depression, developmental lags, apathy, withdrawal, and other psychosocial dysfunctions frequently are linked to substance abuse among adolescents. Substance-abusing youths are at higher risk than nonusers for mental health problems, including depression; conduct problems, personality disorders, suicidal thoughts, attempted suicide, and suicide.

Academic effects: Declining grades, absenteeism from school and other activities, and increased potential for dropping out of school are problems associated with adolescent substance abuse.

Why do youths abuse Drugs?

  1. Experimental Curiosity
  2. Peer Group Influence
  3. Lack of parental supervision
  4. Personality Problems due to socio-Economic Conditions
  5. The Need for Energy to Work for Long Hours
  6. Availability of the Drugs
  7. Advertisement: Youth are sensitive to advertisement and copy quickly. The glamour in advertising alcohol and cigarette smoking make the youth want to be the way the advert depicts
  8. Social pathologies: Such as unemployment and parental deprivation.

Preventions and Control measures.

Most people do not understand the effects of drug abuse especially on the youths. It is very necessary that drug abuse should be prevented or controlled. Drug abuse is a growing problem and drug abuse prevention should also be a growing measure and stronger in order to over-power the cankerworm.

Family: The prevention of drug abuse should start first from the family.

Religious Commitment: Parents should be committed in their service to God. Parents should be devoted and dedicated religious people. They should lead their children to God and make sure that they are committed in the service of God.

Care and Supervising or Monitoring: Parents should care for their children, meet their physical needs etc and also supervise or monitor them very well.


Drug abuse is a disorder that is characterized by a self-destructive pattern of using a substance that leads to significant problems and distress. Looking at the information gathered from various literatures, one can observed that drug abuse is not caused by a single factor alone, as expressed by many writers. It is caused by the interplay of at least two or more factors.

Drug abuse has not only becomes a universal, social and psychological problem but also emerged that the pattern of drug abuse have almost completely changed sharp and have taken a dimensional model of behaviour sales and consumption (abuse) of drug like marijuana, vellum, vanillin syrup and tremolos are conducted openly in all the states, local governments villages inclusive especially during electioneering campaign, politicians used to buy drugs or given substantial amount to buy and consumed drugs by youths.

Furthermore, uncontrolled drugs abuse its effect are accompanied by violence, crime, misbehaviour and hence a threat to society at large. Drug abuse is injurious to health and as a result should not be seen among youth's.


  • Harper, Douglas. "drug". Online Etymology Dictionary. "Glossary of MHRA terms - P". MHRA. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  • Muraskin, O. A. (1999), Youth and Morals (Islamic Culture Development office, Tehran.)
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse (2015) The Science of Drug Abuse and Addition 39(3), 461-492.
  • Uthaymeen, M. S. (2002), Youth Problems, in the light of the Qur’an and Sunnah: translated by Imam, A. R. A. International Islamic House (HPH).
  • World Health Organization (1973), Technical Report Series No516 on Youth and Drugs.


Nurse Olanrewaju Femi AROWOSEGBE, Registered By Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria. Also A student of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, State of Osun.

Saturday, October 13, 2018

For men- what you should know about erectile dysfunction

Having erection trouble from time to time isn't necessarily a cause for concern. If erectile dysfunction is an ongoing issue, however, it can cause stress, affect your self-confidence and contribute to relationship problems. Problems getting or keeping an erection also can be a sign of an underlying health condition that needs treatment and a risk factor for heart disease down the road.

What is erectile dysfunction 

Erectile dysfunction (impotence) is the inability to get and keep an erection firm enough for sex.
Erectile dysfunction is also defined as difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection sufficient enough to have sex.

Symptoms of erectile dysfunction 

Erectile dysfunction symptoms might include persistent:
➡️Trouble getting an erection
➡️Trouble keeping an erection
➡️Reduced sexual desire

Causes of erectile dysfunction 

There are many possible causes for erectile dysfunction and they can include both psychological and physical disorders. Some common causes are:
➡️cardiovascular disease
➡️damage from cancer or surgery
➡️obesity or being overweight
➡️increased age
➡️relationship problems
➡️drug use
➡️alcohol use

Treatment of erectile dysfunction 

Oral medications 

The following medications stimulate blood flow to your penis to help treat erectile dysfunction:
➡️alprostadil (Caverject)
➡️avanafil (Stendra)
➡️sildenafil (Viagra)
➡️tadalafil (Cialis)
➡️testosterone (Androderm)
➡️vardenafil (Levitra

Psychological counseling

If your erectile dysfunction is caused by stress, anxiety or depression — or the condition is creating stress and relationship tension, your care giver might suggest that you, or you and your partner, visit a psychologist or counselor.

Lifestyle changes and diet

Healthy lifestyle habits may prevent erectile dysfunction, and in some situations reverse the condition:
➡️Regular exercise.
➡️Maintain a low blood pressure.
➡️Eat a balanced/nutritious diet.
➡️Maintain a healthy weight.
➡️Avoid alcohol and cigarettes.
➡️Reduce your stress.

Prevention of erectile dysfunction 

The best way to prevent erectile dysfunction is to make healthy lifestyle choices and to manage any existing health conditions. For example:
➡️Work with your healthcare provider to manage diabetes, heart disease or other chronic health conditions.
➡️See your care giver for regular checkups and medical screening tests.
➡️Stop smoking
➡️Limit or avoid alcohol
➡️Don't use illegal drugs.
➡️Exercise regularly.
➡️Take steps to reduce stress.
➡️Get help for anxiety, depression or other mental health concerns


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Sunday, September 23, 2018

For Men - What do you know about prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that affect the prostate gland.

Prostate is a small gland in males that sits below the bladder near the rectum. It surrounds the urethra, the passage in the penis through which semen and urine pass.

The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system. It produces most of the fluid that makes up semen which sperm. The prostate needs the male hormone testosterone for growth and development.

What is prostate cancer? 

Prostate cancer occurs when abnormal cells develop in the prostate. These abnormal cells can continue to multiply in an uncontrolled way and sometimes spread outside the prostate into nearby or distant parts of the body.

Risk factors of prostate cancer

The following are the factors that can increase your chances of getting prostate cancer:

Age: Your risk of prostate cancer increases as you age.

Race: For reasons, studies have shown that black men has greater risk of prostate cancer than men from other races. In black men, prostate cancer is also more likely to be aggressive or advanced.

Family history: If men in your family have had prostate cancer, your risk may be increased. Also, if you have a family history of genes that increase the risk of breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher.

Obesity: being overweight gives you a higher chance of prostate cancer which is more likely to be advanced and more difficult to treat.

Genetics: Genes are found in every cell of the body. They control the way the cells in the body grow and behave. Every person has a set of many thousands of genes inherited from both parents. Some genes that can increase the risk of prostate cancer can be inherited from parents. Although prostate cancer can't be inherited, a man can only inherit the genes that can increase the risk.

Diet: There is some evidence to suggest that eating a lot of processed meat or food that is high in fat can increase the risk of developing prostate cancer.

Lifestyle: There is evidence to show that environment and lifestyle can affect the risk of developing prostate cancer.

Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer

⭕️Painful urination

⭕️Decreased Urine outflow

⭕️Blood in semen/urine

⭕️Pain at the lower back/hip/upper thigh

⭕️Bone pain

⭕️Erectile dysfunction

Prevention of prostate cancer

The following can help reduce the chances of having prostate cancer:

⭕️Healthy diet: Avoid high-fat foods and instead focus on choosing a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Fruits and vegetables contain many vitamins and nutrients that can contribute to your health.

Whether you can prevent prostate cancer through diet has yet to be conclusively proved. But eating a healthy diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables can improve your overall health.

⭕️EXERCISE: Exercise improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight and improves your mood. There is some evidence that men who don't exercise have higher risk while men who exercise may have a lower risk of prostate cancer.

⭕️HEALTHY WEIGHT: If your current weight is healthy, work to maintain it by exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, add more exercise and reduce the number of calories you eat each day.

Complications of prostate cancer

Complications of prostate cancer include the following:

⭕️Metastasizes: Prostate cancer can spread to nearby organs, such as your bladder, or travel through your bloodstream or lymphatic system to your bones or other organs. Prostate cancer that spreads to the bones can cause pain and broken bones. Once prostate cancer has spread to other areas of the body, it may still respond to treatment and may be controlled, but not likely to be cured.

⭕️Incontinence: Both prostate cancer and its treatment can cause urinary incontinence. Treatment for incontinence depends on the type you have, how severe it is and the likelihood it will improve over time. Treatment options may include medications, Catheterization and Surgery.

⭕️Erectile dysfunction: Erectile dysfunction can result from prostate cancer or its treatment, including surgery, radiation or hormone treatments. Medications, vacuum devices that assist in achieving erection and surgery are available to treat erectile dysfunction.

Treatment of  prostate cancer

Your prostate cancer treatment options depend on several factors, such as how fast your cancer is growing, how much it has spread and your overall health, as well as the benefits and the potential side effects of the treatment.

Immediate treatment may not be necessary

For men diagnosed with very early-stage prostate cancer, treatment may not be necessary right away. Some men may never need treatment. Instead, doctors sometimes recommend active surveillance.

In active surveillance, regular follow-up blood tests, rectal exams and possibly biopsies may be performed to monitor progression of your cancer. If tests show your cancer is progressing, you may opt for a prostate cancer treatment such as surgery or radiation.

Active surveillance may be an option for cancer that isn't causing symptoms, is expected to grow very slowly and is confined to a small area of the prostate. Active surveillance may also be considered for a man who has another serious health condition or an advanced age that makes cancer treatment more difficult. Active surveillance carries a risk that the cancer may grow and spread between checkups, making it less likely to be cured.

Radiation therapy
Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy to kill cancer cells. Prostate cancer radiation therapy can be delivered in two ways:

Radiation that comes from outside of your body (external beam radiation). During external beam radiation therapy, you lie on a table while a machine moves around your body, directing high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays or protons, to your prostate cancer. You typically undergo external beam radiation treatments five days a week for several weeks.

Radiation placed inside your body (brachytherapy). Brachytherapy involves placing many rice-sized radioactive seeds in your prostate tissue.

The radioactive seeds deliver a low dose of radiation over a long period of time. Your doctor implants the radioactive seeds in your prostate using a needle guided by ultrasound images. The implanted seeds eventually stop giving off radiation and don't need to be removed.

Side effects of radiation therapy can include painful urination, frequent urination and urgent urination, as well as rectal symptoms, such as loose stools or pain when passing stools. Erectile dysfunction can also occur.

⭕️Hormone therapy
Hormone therapy is treatment to stop your body from producing the male hormone testosterone. Prostate cancer cells rely on testosterone to help them grow. Cutting off the supply of hormones may cause cancer cells to die or to grow more slowly.

Hormone therapy options include:

✔️Medications that stop your body from producing testosterone.

Medications known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists prevent the testicles from receiving messages to make testosterone.

Drugs typically used in this type of hormone therapy include leuprolide (Lupron, Eligard), goserelin (Zoladex), triptorelin (Trelstar) and histrelin (Vantas). Other drugs sometimes used include ketoconazole and abiraterone (Zytiga).

✔️Medications that block testosterone from reaching cancer cells.

Medications known as anti-androgens prevent testosterone from reaching your cancer cells. Examples include bicalutamide (Casodex), flutamide, and nilutamide (Nilandron). The drug enzalutamide (Xtandi) may be an option when other hormone therapies are no longer effective.

Hormone therapy is used in men with advanced prostate cancer to shrink the cancer and slow the growth of tumors. In men with early-stage prostate cancer, hormone therapy may be used to shrink tumors before radiation therapy. This can make it more likely that radiation therapy will be successful.

Side effects of hormone therapy may include erectile dysfunction, hot flashes, loss of bone mass, reduced sex drive and weight gain.


Surgery for prostate cancer involves removing the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy), some surrounding tissue and a few lymph nodes. Ways the radical prostatectomy procedure can be performed include:

Making an incision in your abdomen: During retropubic surgery, the prostate gland is taken out through an incision in your lower abdomen. Compared with other types of prostate surgery, retropubic prostate surgery may carry a lower risk of nerve damage, which can lead to problems with bladder control and erections.

✔️Making an incision between your anus and scrotum: Perineal surgery involves making an incision between your anus and scrotum in order to access your prostate. The perineal approach to surgery may allow for quicker recovery times, but this technique makes removing the nearby lymph nodes and avoiding nerve damage more difficult.

✔Laparoscopic prostatectomy: During a laparoscopic radical
prostatectomy, the doctor performs surgery through small incisions in the abdomen with the assistance of a tiny camera (laparoscope). This procedure requires great skill on the part of the surgeon, and it carries an increased risk that nearby structures may be accidentally cut. For this reason, this type of surgery is not commonly performed for prostate cancer in the U.S. anymore.


Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill rapidly growing cells, including cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be administered through a vein in your arm, in pill form or both.

Chemotherapy may be a treatment option for men with prostate cancer that has spread to distant areas of their bodies. Chemotherapy may also be an option for cancers that don't respond to hormone therapy.

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Saturday, September 22, 2018

Compulsive Sexual Behavior - What Is It?

Compulsive sexual behavior is sometimes called hypersexuality, hypersexual disorder, nymphomania or sexual addiction. 

It's an obsession with sexual thoughts, urges or behaviors that may cause you distress or that negatively affects your health, job, relationships or other parts of your life.

Compulsive sexual behavior may involve a commonly enjoyable sexual experience (for example, self-stimulation) that becomes an obsession and becomes disruptive or harmful to you or others.

Symptoms of compulsive sexual behavior

Compulsive sexual behavior symptoms vary in type and severity. Some indications that you may be struggling with compulsive sexual behavior include:

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Your sexual impulses are intense and feel as if they're beyond your control

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Even though you feel driven to do certain sexual behaviors, you may or may not find the activity a source of pleasure or satisfaction

πŸ‘‰πŸ» You use compulsive sexual behavior as an escape from other problems, such as loneliness, depression, anxiety or stress

πŸ‘‰πŸ» You continue to engage in sexual behaviors that have serious consequences, such as the potential for getting or giving someone else a sexually transmitted infection, the loss of important relationships, trouble at work, or legal problems

πŸ‘‰πŸ» You have trouble establishing and maintaining emotional closeness, even if you're married or in a committed relationship.

Causes of compulsive sexual behavior

Although the causes of compulsive sexual behavior are unclear, they may include:

√ An imbalance of natural brain chemicals. Certain chemicals in your brain (neurotransmitters) such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine help regulate your mood. High levels may be related to compulsive sexual behavior.

√ Conditions that affect the brain. Certain diseases or health problems may cause damage to parts of the brain that affect sexual behavior.

√ Early exposure to sex that reconfigure the brain pleasure part..

Author: Arowosegbe Olanrewaju, RN
WhatsApp: +2347065236277

Friday, September 21, 2018

Happy World Alzheimer's Day [What You Should About Alzheimer's Disease]

September 21st every year is World Alzheimer’s Day around the world. This is an international campaign aimed at raising awareness and challenge the common stigma that surrounds Alzheimer related dementia.

World Alzheimer's Day

Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with Alzheimer's, symptoms first appear in their mid-60s.

Typical Alzheimer lesions start to develop in the brain already 10 to 20 years before the first symptoms (the pre-symptomatic phase of the disease). Only when the neuronal injury evolves and the cognitive reserve decreases, symptoms start to manifest.

Alzheimer's disease is currently ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, but recent estimates indicate that the disorder may rank third, just behind *heart disease* and *cancer*, as a cause of death for older people.

What is Alzheimer's Disease?

Alzheimer’s disease, which is the most common form of dementia, is an incurable degenerative disease. Neurons in certain parts of the brain are destroyed which leads to deficits in cognitive functions, such as memory, language skills, and behavior.

CAUSES/RISK FACTORS of Alzheimer's Disease

Although the main cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, But several factors are known to increase your risk of developing the condition.

Age is the single most significant factor. The likelihood of developing Alzheimer's disease doubles every 5 years after you reach 65.

But it's not just older people who are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Around 1 in 20 people with the condition are under 65.

This is called early- or young-onset Alzheimer's disease and it can affect people from around the age of 40.

▶️Family history
The genes you inherit from your parents can contribute to your risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

Studies has shown that being a woman increases your chance of developing Alzheimer's disease.

▶️Down's syndrome
People with Down's syndrome are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

This is because the genetic fault that causes Down's syndrome can also cause amyloid plaques to build up in the brain over time, which can lead to Alzheimer's disease in some people.

▶️Head injuries
People who have had a severe head injury may be at higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

▶️Cardiovascular disease
Research shows that several lifestyle factors and conditions associated with cardiovascular disease can increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease.

These include:




◻️high blood pressure

◻️high cholesterol

Signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease

1. Reduced ability to take in and remember new information, which can lead, for example, to:

▶️repetitive questions or conversations
▶️misplacing personal belongings
▶️forgetting events or appointments
▶️getting lost on a familiar route

2. Impairments to reasoning, complex tasking, and exercising judgment, for example:

▶️poor understanding of safety risks
▶️inability to manage finances
▶️poor decision-making ability
▶️inability to plan complex or sequential activities

3. Impaired visuospatial abilities that are not, for example, due to eye sight problems. These could be:

▶️inability to recognize faces or common objects or to find objects in direct view
▶️inability to use simple tools, for example, to orient clothing to the body

4. Impaired speaking, reading and writing, for example: difficulty thinking of common words while speaking, hesitations, speech, spelling, and writing errors

5. Changes in personality and behavior, for example:

▶️out-of-character mood changes, including agitation, apathy, social withdrawal or a lack of interest, motivation, or initiative
▶️loss of empathy
▶️compulsive, obsessive, or socially unacceptable behavior

Complications of Alzheimer's Disease

Memory and language loss, impaired judgment, and other cognitive changes caused by Alzheimer's can complicate treatment for other health conditions. A person with Alzheimer's disease may not be able to:

▶️Communicate that he or she is experiencing pain — for example, from a dental problem
▶️Report symptoms of another illness
▶️Follow a prescribed treatment plan
▶️Notice or describe medication side effects

As Alzheimer's disease progresses to its last stages, brain changes begin to affect physical functions, such as swallowing, balance, and bowel and bladder control. These effects can increase vulnerability to additional health problems such as:

▶️Inhaling food or liquid into the lungs (aspiration)
▶️Pneumonia and other infections
▶️Malnutrition or dehydration

Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease

As the exact cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, there's no certain way to prevent the condition. But a healthy lifestyle can help reduce your risk. Examples include the following:

▶️stopping smoking
▶️keeping alcohol to a minimum
▶️eating a healthy, balanced diet, including at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables every day
▶️exercising for at least 150 minutes every week by doing moderate-intensity aerobic activity (such as cycling or fast walking), or as much as you're able to
▶️making sure your blood pressure is checked and controlled through regular health tests
▶️if you have diabetes, make sure you keep to the diet and take your medication.

Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

There is no known cure for Alzheimer's. The death of brain cells cannot be reversed.

However, there are therapeutic interventions that can make it easier for people to live with the disease.

According to the Alzheimer's Association, the following are important elements of dementia care:

▶️effective management of any conditions occurring alongside the Alzheimer's

▶️activities and day-care programs

▶️involvement of support groups and services

▶️Drug therapy

No disease-modifying drugs are available for Alzheimer's disease, but some options may reduce the symptoms and help improve quality of life.

Cholinesterase inhibitors that are approved for symptomatic relief include:

◻️Donepezil (Aricept)

◻️Rivastigmine (Exelon)

◻️Tacrine (Cognex)

A different kind of drug, memantine (Namenda), an NMDA receptor antagonist, may also be used, alone or in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor.

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Happy World Alzheimer's Day From All Of Us @ Just Ask Nurse