Thursday, February 14, 2019

Performing Self-Breast Examination

What is Self-Breast Examination?
A  Self-Breast Examination is a technique which allows an individual to examine her breast tissue for any physical or visual changes. It is often used for early detection method of any breast abnormality such as Breast cancer, Fribro-Adenoma (Breast Lump) e.t.c.

The breast is one of the upper ventral parts in human beings. In females, it serves as the mammary gland, which produces and secretes milk to feed infants. Milk exists the breast through the nipple, which is surrounded by a pigmented area of the skin called the areola. The areola contains modified sweat glands known as Montgomery’s glands which secrete oily fluid that lubricates and protect the nipple during breastfeeding.

Breast size and other characteristics do not predict the fat-to-milk gland ration or the potential for the woman to nurse an infant. The size and shape of the woman are influenced by normal life hormonal changes such as Thelarche, Menstruation, Pregnancy, Menopause, and other medical conditions such as Breast Hypertrophy. There is a common belief that breastfeeding causes breasts to sag, Researchers have discovered that a woman’s breast sag due to four important factors: Cigarette Smoking, number of pregnancies, gravity, and weight loss or gain. During Thelarche i.e the breast development stage, the developing breasts are sometimes of unequal size, and usually the left breast is slightly larger, this condition is statistically normal in female physical and sexual development.

Methods of Self-Breast Examination
There are 3 methods in which self-breast examination is carried out Namely:
·     🍅Observation: Inspect in front of a mirror for any abnormal change in size, shape, contour of the skin, dimpling of the skin, swelling and changes in the nipple.
·         🍅Palpation: Palpate for any abnormal lumps- By;
-Place the fingers flat and press gently in a circular motion on the breast.
-Move the hand round clock-wise starting from the outer side of the breast or the collar bone.
-Move hand towards the nipple until the whole breast is palpated up to the nipple.
·         🍅 Squeezing: Squeeze the nipple for any abnormal discharges e.g Fluid, blood, abnormal secretions.

Note: BSE is usually best after the start of menstruation i.e.  4-7 days after menstruation, and same day of every month for post-menopausal women.

Benefits of Self-Breast Examination
·      🌳Enables the woman to know to know more about her breasts, body and changes during ovulation and menstruation.
·         🌳Allows early detection of any abnormal breast changes.
·         🌳 Enables the woman to seek early, medical help.

Interesting Facts about Vaginal Discharge

Vaginal discharge has confused our generations and made our young girls confused towards what vaginal discharge is, due to what they have read in the internet and what some doctors, nurses, have told them. Their minds are filled with questions such as; is vaginal discharge a sign of an infection? Or is vaginal discharge an infection itself? In this article l will be telling us briefly what vaginal discharge is all about.
What is vaginal Discharge?
Vaginal discharges are secretions which are produced by the glands of the vaginal wall and cervix that drain from the vaginal orifice or opening. The fluid carries dead cells and bacteria out of the body, and vaginal discharge helps keep the vagina clean and prevent infections.
We should also note that vaginal discharge can occur on it’s own and also it can occur when itching i.e. most times when it is occurring abnormally. Girls often think that when its accompanied with itching then one can say she has infection , but nevertheless it is not so.

Some of the factors that can cause normal vaginal discharge;
·    🍅 Ovulation: during ovulation (i.e. the release of egg from your ovary in the middle of menstrual cycle the vagina is more likely to discharge fluids.
·    🍅 Sexual excitement: during sexual intercourse the gland of the vaginal walls tends to secrete fluids which helps in lubricating the vagina to prevent dryness, and makes it easy for penetration during coitus.
·      🍅 Pregnancy: there is more discharge from the vaginal wall during pregnancy.
These normal type of vaginal discharge can be classified as Non-Infectious Vaginal Discharge, this category of vaginal discharge can also be influenced by factors; such as chemical irritation; like detergents used for washing of underwear’s, some bathing soaps, use of intra uterine device and the use of some oral contraceptive.
Different types of infections may cause an abnormal discharge in the vagina. An abnormal discharge means abnormal color (brown, green, etc), and odor.

Some of these factors can possibly cause an abnormal discharge;
·   🌳Sexually transmitted infections (STIs); such as Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, trichomoniasis etc. of which I will be talking about some of these infections and how they can cause vaginal discharge in the next part of the article.
·    🌳 Non-Sexually transmitted infection; an example of these infection is the bacteria vaginosis which is a normal bacteria that live in the vagina that overgrows and causes a gray vaginal discharge and fishy odor. Bacteria vaginosis is usually not spread by sexual contact.
·     🌳Vaginal yeast infection; which is usually caused by a fungus called Candida albicans.

Nature of some abnormal discharge;
If your discharge changes-for example in smell, color, or texture – it might be a sign of infection.
Discharge                                           Possible cause
Smells fishy                                        Bacterial Vaginosis
Thick and white                                  Thrush
Green, Yellow or frothy                      Trichomoniasis
Yellow With pelvic pain
or bleeding.                                         Chlamydia or Gonorrhea
With blisters or sores                          Genital herpes

NOTE: Normal vaginal discharge is clear, odorless and does not come with pelvic pain

How is abnormal discharge treated?
How you are treated will depend on what’s causing the problem. For example, yeast infections are usually treated with antifungal medications inserted into the vagina or taking as oral medications. Bacterial vaginosis is treated with antibiotic pills or creams. Trichomoniasis is usually treated with the drug metronidazole(Flagly) or Tinidazole (Tindamax).

Tips for preventing vaginal infections
·        🍎 Keep the vagina clean by washing regularly with a gentle, mild soap and warm water.
·        🍅 Never use scented soaps and feminine products or douche. Also avoid feminine sprays and bubble       bath.
·        🍎After going to the bathroom, always wipe from front to back to prevent bacteria from getting into         the vagina and causing an infection.
·         🍓Wear 100% cotton underpants, and avoid overly tight clothing.

Monday, February 4, 2019

indigestion _ what you should know

Indigestion is also called dyspepsia or an upset stomach — is a general term that describes discomfort in your upper abdomen. Indigestion is not a disease, but rather some symptoms you experience, including abdominal pain and a feeling of fullness soon after you start eating. Although indigestion is common, how you experience indigestion may differ from other people. Symptoms of indigestion may be felt occasionally or as often as daily.

Symptoms of indigestion 

People with indigestion may have one or more of the following symptoms:

🦂✴Early fullness during a meal. You haven't eaten much of your meal, but you already feel full and may not be able to finish eating.
🦂✴Uncomfortable fullness after a meal. Fullness lasts longer than it should.
🦂✴Discomfort in the upper abdomen. You feel a mild to severe pain in the area between the bottom of your breastbone (sternum) and your navel.
🦂✴Burning in the upper abdomen. You feel an uncomfortable heat or burning sensation between the bottom of the breastbone and navel.
🦂✴Bloating in the upper abdomen.*_ You feel an uncomfortable sensation of tightness.
✴Less frequent symptoms include vomiting and belching.

Causes of indigestion 

Indigestion has many possible causes. Often, indigestion is related to lifestyle and may be triggered by food, drink or medication. Common causes of indigestion include:

🌰Overeating or eating too quickly
🌰Fatty, greasy or spicy foods
🌰Too much caffeine, alcohol, chocolate or carbonated beverages
🌰Certain antibiotics, pain relievers and iron supplements

Sometimes indigestion is caused by other digestive conditions, including:
🐍GastritisPeptic ulcers
🐍Celiac disease
🐍Pancreas inflammation (pancreatitis)
🐍Stomach cancer
🐍Intestinal blockage
🐍Reduced blood flow in the intestine (intestinal ischemia)

Treatment of indigestion 

Lifestyle changes may help ease indigestion. Which include the following 👇👇👇

💀Avoid foods that trigger indigestion
💀Eating five or six small meals a day instead of three large meals
💀Reduce or eliminate the use of alcohol and caffeine
💀Avoid certain pain relievers, such as aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen
💀Find alternatives for medications that trigger indigestion
💀Control your stress and anxiety

Lifestyle and home remedies 

Mild indigestion can often be helped with lifestyle changes, including:

💩 Eating smaller, more frequent meals. Chew your food slowly and thoroughly.
💩 Avoiding triggers. You should avoid Fatty and spicy foods, processed foods, carbonated beverages, caffeine, alcohol and smoking can trigger indigestion.
💩 Maintaining a healthy weight. Excess excess weight put pressure on your abdomen, pushing up your stomach and causing acid to back up into your esophagus.
Exercise helps you keep off extra weight and promotes better digestion.
💩 Managing stress. Create a calm environment at mealtime. Practice relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, meditation or yoga. Spend time doing things you enjoy. Get plenty of sleep.
💩 Changing your medications. With your doctor's approval, stop or cut back on pain relievers or other medications that may irritate your stomach lining. If that's not an option, be sure to take these medications with food.

👩🏼‍🔬👩🏼‍🔬👩🏼‍🔬 *JAN* 👨🏻‍⚕👨🏻‍⚕👨🏻‍⚕_stay healthy and stay blessed_

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Sunday, January 6, 2019

Things You Should Know About Pelvic Inflammatory Disease


In the US, ~800,000 women are diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) each year.  However, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that more than one million women experience an episode of PID each year taking into account missed cases of PID.  The rates of PID are concerning given the serious potential complication of PID, including tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Missed and/or improperly or inadequately treated cases of PID increase the risk of complications of PID. Not only does the severity of these complications highlight the seriousness of the disorder, but also young women indicated that they are willing to give up 12 years of their life to prevent PID and its associated complication, as reported in a recent health economics study using time tradeoffs to assess patient utilities for the health states associated with PID in a general population sample.


Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs. It usually occurs when sexually transmitted bacteria spread from your vagina to your uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common cause of disease in young women and is usually secondary to a sexually transmitted infection. The diagnosis is based on clinical history and examination, but is inaccurate and leads to over diagnosis of the condition. Despite this, empirical antibiotic treatment based on a clinical assessment is still recommended because failure to treat PID can result in infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain in up to 40% of women. It is important to exclude an ectopic pregnancy before starting treatment for PID for women which are pregnant. Screening and treatment of male partners is important to prevent re-infection which is associated with an increased risk of long-term.

What Causes Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)?

Normally, the cervix prevents bacteria that enter the vagina from spreading to the internal reproductive organs. If the cervix is exposed to numerous bacterias, the cervix itself becomes infected and is less able to prevent the spread of organisms to the internal organs. PID occurs when the disease-causing organisms travel from the cervix to the upper genital tract.


Pelvic inflammatory disease can be very difficult to diagnose. The symptoms of PID are very non-specific. In other words, they can be caused by a number of different conditions. Therefore, it can take time for doctors to recognize that a woman is dealing with PID rather than a different type of infection or condition. The best method for diagnosis of Pelvic inflammatory disease is a laparoscopic examination. With this type of examination, a small camera is used to look for inflammation and scarring inside the abdominal cavity. However, it can be difficult to justify this type of examination when symptoms are mild. PID can also be diagnosed by symptoms, but that type of diagnosis is much less accurate. When looking for symptoms of PID, doctors are specifically looking for pain in the cervix, uterus, or Fallopian tubes which often causes pain around the pelvic. Doctors may also use trans- vaginal ultrasound to look for inflammation. Once doctors suspect PID, they also need to look for the underlying infection. Therefore PID diagnosis also usually involves comprehensive screening for bacterial STDs and also a fungi infection. However, sometimes standard methods of STD screening will not detect infections present in the uterus, Fallopian tubes, or the rest of the upper reproductive tract.
Subclinical PID is defined as inflammation of the upper reproductive tract in the absence of signs and symptoms of acute PID. subclinical patients with PID are asymptomatic, According to the CDC 2015 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, any young sexually active woman or woman at risk for STIs with unexplained lower abdominal or pelvic pain and at least one of the following clinical criteria noted on pelvic examination should receive presumptive treatment for PID: cervical motion tenderness, uterine tenderness, and adnexal tenderness.
Diagnosis can also be made based on signs and symptoms, a pelvic exam, an analysis of vaginal discharge and cervical cultures, or urine tests.
During the pelvic exam, your doctor will first check your pelvic region for signs and symptoms of PID. Your doctor might then use cotton swabs to take samples from your vagina and cervix. The samples will be analyzed at a lab to determine the organism that's causing the infection.

How Can Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Be Prevented?

Randomized, controlled trials suggest that preventing chlamydial infection reduces the incidence of PID.  In addition, anyone who has had sexual contact with a woman with PID in the 60 days preceding the onset of her symptoms should be treated empirically for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. CDC guidelines recommend that even if a patient last had sexual intercourse more than 60 days before symptom onset or diagnosis, the most recent sex partner should be treated. Regardless of whether a womans sex partners were treated, women diagnosed with chlamydial or gonococcal infection should follow up with repeat testing within 3-6 months. These women have a high rate of re-infection within 6 months of treatment.
 Adolescents are more likely to have recurrent PID than adults are and so may require a different approach to make a follow-up, improved education, routine screening, diagnosis, and empirical treatment of these infections should reduce the incidence and prevalence of these processes and the development of long-term complications. Education should concentrate on strategies to prevent PID and STIs, including reducing the number of sexual partners, avoiding unsafe sexual practices, and routinely using appropriate barrier protection. Adolescents, being at an increased risk for PID, should be advised to delay the onset of sexual intercourse until age 16 years or older.  Women with PID should be counseled to abstain from sexual activity or use barrier protection strictly and appropriately until their symptoms and those of their partner have fully abated and they have completed their entire treatment regimen.


If it's diagnosed at an early stage, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) can be treated easily and effectively with antibiotics. These can be prescribed by your GP or a doctor at a sexual health clinic. But left untreated, it can lead to more serious long-term complications. Some of these treatments are listed below;


Treatment with antibiotics needs to be started quickly, before the results of the swabs are available. PID is usually caused by a variety of different bacteria, even in cases where chlamydia, gonorrhoea or mycoplasma genitalium. This means you'll be given a mixture of antibiotics to cover the most likely infections, some of the antibiotics commonly prescribed to treat PID include: Ofloxacin, Metronidazole, Ceftriaxone, Doxycycline, Moxifloxacin. Tell your doctor if you think you may be pregnant before starting antibiotic treatment, as some antibiotics should be avoided during pregnancy. You'll usually have to take the antibiotic tablets for 14 days, sometimes beginning with a single antibiotic injection, its very important to complete the entire course of antibiotics, even if you're feeling better, to help ensure the infection is properly cleared. In particularly severe cases of PID, you may have to be admitted to hospital to receive antibiotics through a drip in your arm (intravenously). If you have pain around your pelvis or tummy, you can take painkillers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen while you're being treated with antibiotics.

In some cases, you may be advised to have a follow-up appointment of 3 days after starting treatment so your doctor can check if the antibiotics are working. If the antibiotics seem to be working, you may have another follow-up appointment at the end of the course to check if treatment has been successful. If your symptoms haven't started to improve within 3 days, you may be advised to attend hospital for further tests and treatment. If you have an intrauterine device (IUD) fitted, you may be advised to have it removed if your symptoms haven't improved within a few days, as it may be the cause of the infection.

Treating sexual partners
Any sexual partners you have been with in the 6 months before your symptoms started should be tested and treated to stop the infection recurring or being spread to others, even if no specific cause is identified. PID can occur in long-term relationships where neither partner has had sex with anyone else. It's more likely to return if both partners aren't treated at the same time. You should avoid having sex until both you and your partner have completed the course of treatment. If you haven't had a sexual partner in the previous 6 months, your most recent partner should be tested and treated. Your doctor or sexual health clinic can help you contact your previous partners.


Repeated episodes of PID Some women experience repeated episodes of PID. This is known as recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease. The condition can return if the initial infection isn't entirely cleared. This is often because the course of antibiotics wasn't completed or because a sexual partner wasn't tested and treated. If an episode of
PID damages the womb or fallopian tubes, it can become easier for bacteria to infect these areas in the future, making it more likely that you'll develop the condition again. Repeated episodes of PID are associated with an increased risk of infertility.

PID can sometimes cause collections of infected fluid called abscesses to develop, most commonly in the fallopian tubes and ovaries. Abscesses may be treated with antibiotics, but sometimes laparoscopic surgery (keyhole surgery) may be needed to drain the fluid away. The fluid can also sometimes be drained using a needle that's guided into place using an ultrasound scan.

Long-term pelvic pain
Some women with Pelvic inflammatory develop long-term (chronic) pain around their pelvis and lower abdomen, which can be difficult to live with and lead to further problems, such as depression and difficulty sleeping (insomnia). If you develop chronic pelvic pain, you may be given painkillers to help control your symptoms. Tests to determine the cause may be carried out. If painkillers don't control your pain, you may be referred to a pain management team or a specialist pelvic pain clinic.

Ectopic pregnancy
An ectopic pregnancy is when a fertilized egg implants itself outside of the womb, usually in one of the fallopian tubes. If PID infects the fallopian tubes, it can scar the lining of the tubes, making it more difficult for eggs to pass through. If a fertilized egg gets stuck and begins to grow inside the tube, it can cause the tube to burst, which can sometimes lead to severe and life-threatening internal bleeding. If you're diagnosed with an ectopic pregnancy, you may be given medication to stop the egg growing or have surgery to remove it.

As well as increasing your risk of having an ectopic pregnancy, scarring or abscesses in the fallopian tubes can make it difficult for you to get pregnant if eggs can't pass easily into the womb. It's estimated about 1 in 10 women with PID become infertile as a result of the condition, with the highest risk for women who delayed treatment or had repeated episodes of PID.
But a long-term study in the US showed that women who'd been successfully treated for PID had the same pregnancy rates as the rest of the population. Blocked or damaged fallopian tubes can sometimes be treated with surgery. If this isn't possible and you want to have children, you may want to consider an assisted conception technique, such as IVF. IVF involves surgically removing eggs from a woman's ovaries and fertilizing them with sperm in a laboratory, before planting the fertilized eggs into the woman's womb.

Remember Health Is Wealth.

Written by: Isikadi Precious, RN

Monday, December 24, 2018

Urinary Tract Infection: What You Should Know

Urinary tract infection is infection along the while urinary tract.

Urinary tract infection can e classified into two namely:
➡️ upper urinary tract infection
➡️ lower urinary tract infection

Major example of upper urinary tract infection is *pyelonephritis*, which an inflammation of the renal pelvic.

Example of lower urinary tract infection are cystitis(inflammation and infection of the bladder) and urethritis (inflammation of the urethra, the pipe that drains urine from the bladder)

Causes of urinary tract infection 

Major cause of urinary tract infection is by microorganisms such as the following
▶️ E. coli
▶ Enterobactet
▶️ Staphylococcus
▶️ Candida
▶ Enterococci

Risk factors to urinary tract infection 

The factors that exposed individual to urinart tract infection include the following
➡️ Old age
➡️ Female, because of the short length of urethra
➡️ Pregnancy, because of decreases urethra movement due to pressure
➡️ Spinal cord injury
➡ Tumors in the bladder or it's environment
➡️ Prostrate enlargement
➡️ Incomplete bladder emptying
➡️ Catheterization
➡️ keeping urine in bladder for
➡️ Chronic diseases like Diabetes, Gout

Signs and symptoms of urinary tract infection 

◼️ Fever and chills
◼️ Pain and tenderness around the public area
◼️ Painful urination
◼️ Frequent urination
◼️ Hematuria (blood in urine)
◼️ Frequent urination at night
◼️ Lack of urine control

Management of urinary tract infection 

▶️ Balanced diet with plenty fluid intake to dilute the urine in order to reduce irritation and prevent upward movement of bacteria
▶️ Good personal hygiene to prevent spread of infection, clean from front to back after using toilet
▶️ Antibiotics to fight microbes e.g Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin
▶️ Anticholinergic, to increase outflow of urine e.g Probatein


Long-term treatment is required if infection is recurrent

Follow-up care is essential to prevent complications

Wear cotton pants order than nylon or synthetic as they do not allow enough air passage and promote bacteria growth.

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Sunday, November 25, 2018

What you should know about lightheadedness

Lightheadedness is when you are having a feeling of faintness, dizziness, or you are close to passing out. It can occur alongside vertigo, which affects balance and makes you feel as if you or your surroundings are spinning. Although lightheadedness and vertigo can feel similar, they have different causes.
Experiencing some episodes of lightheadedness is normal. In most cases, these episodes will pass quickly, especially if a person sits or lies down to rest.

Causes of lightheadedness 

✔️The most common cause of lightheadedness is orthostatic hypotension, which is a sudden drop in blood pressure when a person stands up.
✔️Positional changes, especially quick ones, divert blood flow temporarily from the brain to the body. It is more likely that this will result in lightheadedness when you are dehydrated or ill.

The feeling usually passes quickly, especially if a person sits down again.

Other common causes of lightheadedness include:
✔️illnesses, such as the cold or flu
✔️altitude sickness
✔️prolonged exposure to hot weather
✔️low blood sugar
✔️alcohol, tobacco, or drug use
✔️certain medications

Sometimes, lightheadedness may have a more severe underlying cause, such as:

✔️heart attack
✔️inner ear disorders
✔️internal bleeding
✔️blood loss
✔️neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis
✔️conditions that affect blood flow
✔️head injuries
✔️eating disorders

If lightheadedness is due to a more serious underlying condition, a you will be experience additional symptoms.

Home remedies

If you are is prone to experiencing dizziness or lightheadedness, you can use the following tips to reduce you risk of falling or fainting:
✔️Getting up slowly after sitting or lying down.
✔️Drinking lots of water, especially in hot weather or during exercise.
✔️Eating or drinking something sugary or with simple carbohydrates when feeling faint.
✔️Lying or sitting down until the episode passes.
✔️Getting enough sleep.
✔️Avoiding caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol.
✔️Limiting salt intake.
✔️if you thinks that their medication may be causing lightheadedness should speak to your care giver.

Treatment for lightheadedness 

While lightheadedness does not usually require medical care, your care giver may sometimes recommend one of the following treatments, depending on the underlying cause:

➡️physical therapy
➡️compression stockings to keep blood from pooling in the legs

Medications could include:

▶️anti-anxiety medications
▶️antinausea medications
▶️medications for migraines
If your care giver recommends physical therapy for lightheadedness, a physical therapist is likely to teach you exercises to improve your balance.

In people who have lightheadedness due to anxiety, a care giver may recommend psychotherapy or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to help you manage this condition. A therapist may provide other coping mechanisms to reduce your stress levels.

However, it is essential to seek emergency medical attention for lightheadedness or dizziness when one or more of the following symptoms accompany it:
➡️weakness on one side of the body
➡️facial drooping or numbness
➡️slurred speech
➡️chest pain
➡️pain in the arm, neck, or jaw
➡️sudden severe headache
➡️numbness or inability to move the arms or legs
➡️vision changes, such as double vision
➡️a rapid or irregular heartbeat
➡️You should also report to hospital immediately if lightheadedness occurs following a head injury.


Lightheadedness is a common experience, and it usually resolves very quickly with no lasting effects. People who frequently experience lightheadedness can usually manage the symptoms at home.
In some cases, lightheadedness may occur as a result of an underlying medical cause, in which case a person is likely to experience additional symptoms.
Anyone who has concerns about lightheadedness should speak to a health professional.

Thanks and stay blessed.

Resources: MNT

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Tuesday, November 13, 2018

Family planning methods - advantages and disadvantages of each

Adults, who are sexually active, regardless of age and race should be aware of family planning options. The World Health Organization, for one, does not confine family planning as a pregnancy prevention method alone.

According to them, it is about planned conception and making sure that each newborn is wanted.

Family planning makes use of birth control techniques to primarily decide the number of offspring a family will have and the best time to have each one.

The decision of which birth control method to use is often based on health concerns, habits, and vital personal preferences like religion.

While only abstinence assures complete pregnancy prevention, most contraceptive methods are highly effective especially when correctly practiced.

What are the commonly used family planning methods?

1. Birth Control Pills

Birth control pills are oral contraceptives that must be taken daily. The method is often recommended for both women who are religious in remembering daily doses and those who desire to restore fertility quickly.


Aside from its birth control properties, the pill also has health benefits. Both progestin-only and combination pills lighten periods, reduce the intensity of menstrual cramps, and lessen the possibility of ectopic pregnancies.

The combination pill specifically helps prevent bone thinning, acne, ovarian cysts and cancers, breast cysts, endometrial cancers, infections in the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, anemia, PMS, and iron deficiency.

Women on the pill can get pregnant immediately after stopping it- one of the reasons why most women prefer the method. Also, taking the pill is made easier to remember with easy to bring small pill packs.


The most popular thing that women don't like about birth control pills is the daily routine of taking it. The use of alarms and reminder apps or pill pack just next to you may help in remembering, but not a complete assurance. Also, like other medications, pills have their own set of side effects.

While they usually go away after a couple of months, most women on pills experience changes in sexual desire, bleeding between periods, nausea, and sore breasts.

2. Barrier Methods

Diaphragms, female and male condoms, as well as cervical caps all belong to the barrier family planning methods. Basically, they work in preventing the sperm from getting close or in contact to the egg.

For the methods to be effective, these must be anchored before the actual copulation takes place. While thousands do not like the methods because somehow it inhibits spontaneity, barriers prevent the spread of diseases as well as promote sharing of birth control responsibilities.


Barrier methods are simple to use, widely available and must be used before intercourse only. They protect both parties from possible spread of sexually transmitted diseases and, often, are not contraindicated against most allergies.

Female condoms, specifically, are unlikely to tear even during the roughest sexual techniques and can be inserted many hours before the sexual intercourse.


It is extremely rare to use the male condoms perfectly as they are easily torn apart. Also, frequent users report reduced arousal during sexual intercourse with the use of it.

Female condoms, on the other hand, is easily dislodged and may result to the penis inserting between the vaginal wall and the condom instead. There were circumstances where women report a “noisy” method experience during the intercourse.

3. Long-term Contraceptive Methods

For individuals who would want to get pregnant in the future, but are not into regularly prepping up against contraception, long-term methods are the best tools to use.

The methods include vaginal ring, contraceptive shots, intrauterine device or IUD, and implantable rod. All these are not easily reversible and non-hormonal. However, fertility immediately returns when the woman decides to discontinue its use.


The long-term effect of not having to remember daily routines is the biggest advantage of using these methods. It is extremely effective in preventing pregnancy although a few methods halt menstrual periods.


The long-term contraceptive methods do not protect either of the parties from contacting sexually transmitted infections. Also, most of these methods require surgeries for both the insertion procedure and the removal of it.

While there are rare instances of infections in areas of tool implantation, the most common side effects include weight gain, nervousness, irregular menstrual periods, hair loss, and episodes of depression.

Most importantly, it is not for use of all women. Those with maintenance medications are discouraged from using any of the long-term contraceptive methods.

4. Natural Family Planning (NFP)

NFP is the sole option that produces no negative health impact and is completely free.

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists explained that NFP only necessitates full awareness of a woman’s body's cycles especially when she is the most fertile.

When the main goal of copulation is to produce pregnancy, intercourse during the fertile times is the way to do it. However, if it is for avoiding pregnancy, the practice of abstinence during periods of fertility should be done.


The healthiest fertility regulation method, natural family planning neither interferes with the menstrual cycle nor make use of chemicals and hormones that pollute the environment.

NFP is also easy to use and familiarize and is highly effective amongst women regardless of a woman’s stage of reproductive life.

Both culture and religion permit the use of natural family planning because of its moral principles, while constantly promoting better couple communication.


The primary disadvantage is abstinence when a woman’s biology is the most interested in being intimate. For most couples, it requires a huge lifestyle change. Also, the practice of NFP needs training from a healthcare professional to establish the unique physiology of a woman’s cycle.

Maternal health is one of the biggest factors why effective family planning campaign is being pushed worldwide. It revolves around the holistic condition of a woman from pregnancy through recovering after giving birth.

While it is true that motherhood is a fulfilling and positive journey, millions of women associate the experience with medical complications, emotional suffering, and death.

When women are given the chance to space their pregnancies and limit it through their personal choice of contraceptive method, they are also given the right to a healthy well-being and pleasant motherhood.


Find this article helpful, endeavor to share 👍👍👍
Have a nice day 😇😇😇

Sunday, November 4, 2018

8 Causes Of Pain After Sexual Intercourse In Men

Penis pain after sex is a common problem in young men. Sometimes, the pain do not last long. It may rob the individual off the pleasure. It may be necessary to seek medical help, if you do experience it.

Causes may include;
1. Prostatitis: Prostatitis can lead to pain that occurs during sex, ejaculation or after sex.

2. Peyronies disease: A condition when the penis bends or curves, usually when it is erect. The bending may also be due to inflammation or abnormal scar tissue.

3. Infection in the prostate, bladder, urethra or seminal vesicle can cause intense burning after ejaculation. STDs are cause of sexual pain in men e.g Gonorrhea.

4. Interstitial Cystitis: Chronic inflammatory bladder condition. Men with this may experience pain during sexual intercourse.

5. Psychological problems e.g Stress, anxiety, emotional or depression may cause sexual pain. Pain may occur as a result of having anxiety related to sex or intimacy. Being a victim of sexual can manifest in sexual pain.

6. Prolonged sex: During too hard and too long repeated friction, the shaft and the head of the penis rubs up against vaginal walls and it may cause painful sensation after.

7. Lack of lubrication/dryness. Dryness of the woman's genital can increase friction during sex.

8. Injuries or fracture: Any wrong manipulation or bending may lead to penis fracture, dislocation or bruising.

Seek expert help if you do experience it!

Saturday, November 3, 2018

Peptic Ulcer - What You Should Know

peptic ulcer and causes

When I mention Ulcer, I am sure this 'Medical Term' won't be sounding strange to your ears. An average adult knows what Ulcer is and can even describe its most common symptom (pain in the abdomen or chest burn).

But do you know that Ulcers can develop anywhere in the body? Yes! Don't be surprised.

This is because Ulcer is a medical term to describe any form of sore.

This leads me to properly tell you that there are other Ulcers that could be located at other places (e.g. the Foot, Cornea of the Eyes, Skin, Mouth, Gums etc) in the body and one of these is the 'Peptic Ulcer' which most people only know as 'Ulcer'.

'Peptic Ulcer' is called Peptic because the Ulcer is caused by acid.

That established, I would have you know that 'Peptic Ulcer' mostly occur in either of these two places; the Stomach (Gastric Ulcer) or the Duodenum (Duodenal Ulcer).

So what causes 'Peptic Ulcer'?

You may have wondered for so long what actually caused the several Ulcer pain attacks that you have had in times past or you have a friend or family relative that has a Peptic Ulcer.

Well here is where I get to tell you the cause of this common yet unknown enemy😡.

The popular belief is that Peptic Ulcers are caused by Not eating early, eating spicy/hot foods, drinking acidic fruits etc.

Medicine once thought these were the causes too because coincidentally many patients had Ulcer pain complaints after these few things highlighted above. But medicine began to look into other possibilities because when even after eating on time, not eating spicy foods etc, these people still had these complaints.

Due to research we now know that Peptic Ulcers develop due to the action of a bacteria known as Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori for short)

This bacteria gets into the Stomach via dirty hands, foods, faecal contents etc. This could even be from childhood but most people don't feel any symptoms till they are older.

H. Pylori, when it gets into the Stomach starts to bore/work its way into the mucous layers of the Stomach (This mucous layer protects the Stomach from its own acid content (HCl) and other digestive juices).

Note: Certain cells in the Stomach have the responsibility of producing an acid (Hydrochloric Acid) that helps in digestion of food, kills bacteria from foods we eat etc.

Most times this bacteria gets under the mucous membranes and is protected by it so that antibiotics and antibodies cannot get to it this accounts for why it can stay for so long and keep causing damage.

Note that antibodies are the body soldiers that help fight invading micro organisms. Antibiotics are more like their synthetic form.
So let's get this, what H. Pylori does is like eating up a place that is covered by a sheet of protection from an acid, and once this protective sheet is eaten off, others surfaces underneath the sheath is directly open to the acid

The exposure to the acid leads to:

Symptoms of peptic ulcer 

-Pain in the upper part of the belly.

-Chest burns


-Feeling of fullness



Another factor that leads to ulceration of the Stomach lining is long term use of Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) e.g. Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Naproxen etc.

READ ALSO: What you should know about Aspirin

NSAIDS are a class of analgesics that work very effectively in reducing pain and inflammation but sadly one of their side effects is Ulcer formation due to many mechanisms which I may  not delve into because of complexity. These side effects become so pronounced when they are used for so long.
This is why I pity those who ignorantly combine drugs (painkillers for example) most times they don't know that they may be taking the same drug in different formats or names.

Another identified cause of Ulcer is the  Zolinger Ellison Syndrome (ZES)

In this syndrome there is a growth (tumor) in the Duodenum (beginning part of the intestine) or pancreas. These tumors known as Gastrinomas secrete Gastrin which causes the stomach to produce a lot acid this in turn increases the chances of developing an Ulcer.

The post is becoming very long, why don't you join me in my next post as I talk about
- How to treat/manage Peptic Ulcer;
- The myths and facts about Peptic Ulcer;
- Frequently asked Questions about Peptic Ulcers.

Meanwhile, I hope you have learnt something new from the few things I have shared.

You don't have to live with that Ulcer pain forever. I look forward to seeing you in my next post.

I would always remind you to stay consciously healthy.
I care about you and your health.
Stay healthy

Feel free to make your comments and share the posts to educate someone else.

Have a great day.

Written By: Odunoye O.S ( RN) 

Saturday, October 27, 2018

Signs and symptoms of infertility - men and women

It is not uncommon for people to experience signs of infertility. This may be stressful, as many people show no direct symptoms of infertility until they try to conceive.
Infertility affects both men and women. According to the Office on Women's Health , about a third of issues with infertility comes from women, and another third starts with men. The final third may be due to a combination of both, other factors, or unknown causes.
In this article, learn about signs of infertility in both men and women, as well as when to see a doctor.

Signs of infertility in women

In women, signs of infertility may include:

o Not getting pregnant
The primary sign of infertility is not getting pregnant after trying for a certain length of time.
A doctor may diagnose infertility if a woman has not become pregnant after 1 year of trying.
If the woman is over the age of 35 years old, she may be infertile if she has not become pregnant after 6 months of trying.
o Obesity
A 2018 study found that obesity might negatively affect reproductive health.
Women with obesity have a lower probability of conceiving and are at a higher risk for issues during pregnancy than those without weight issues.
o Pain during sex
Pain during sex, or dyspareunia, can be a sign of an underlying health problem that may influence a woman's fertility. Examples of such health issues include infections, endometriosis, and fibroids .
o Heavy, long, or painful periods
Heavy periods may indicate an underlying condition affecting fertility.
Some women experience a few days of light flow, while others regularly experience heavy periods and painful cramps.
Women who experience very heavy, painful periods may be showing signs of endometriosis, a condition where tissues usually found in the womb are present elsewhere in the body.
o Endometriosis is a risk factor for infertility.
Other symptoms of endometriosis include:

chronic pelvic pain (not only during menstruation)
pain during sex
back pain
irregular periods and spotting
bowel problems or pain with bowel moveme
Dark or pale menstrual blood
If menstrual blood is regularly paler than usual, this may be a cause for concern. Menstrual blood is usually bright red at the beginning of a person's period and may get darker over the following days.
Passing very dark, old blood at the beginning of a period can also be a sign of endometriosis. If a person is experiencing other symptoms, they may wish to speak to your care giver.

o Irregular menstrual cycle
The length of a menstrual cycle varies between individuals and over time. However, many people have a regular cycle, meaning that the time between each period is roughly the same.
Having an irregular cycle, including missing periods, can contribute to infertility, as it means a woman may not be regularly ovulating.
Ovulation is when the ovary releases an egg.
Irregular ovulation can be due to many issues, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, being underweight, and thyroid issues.
o Hormone changes
Signs of hormonal changes can be nonspecific, and a person may not notice them or know the underlying cause. A doctor can test for some hormonal issues.
Fluctuations in hormone levels can cause:

unexplained weight gain
severe acne
cold feet and hands
reduced sex drive or loss of sexual desire
nipple discharge
facial hair in females
thinning hair on the top of the head
Underlying medical conditions
Other contributing factors that may affect fertility in women include:

o damage to the fallopian tubes or ovaries
o premature menopause
o endometriosis
o cancer and cancer treatments

Signs of infertility in men

Signs of infertility in men can include the following:
Hormonal imbalances
A doctor can test for infertility in men.
A variety of hormonal imbalances can affect a man's fertility.
Testosterone is a key hormone for male fertility, so problems with the testes that produce this hormone may lead to infertility.
Two hormones signal to the testes to make sperm and testosterone: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone.
The pituitary gland produces these hormones, so any problems with this gland may also influence infertility.
Erectile dysfunction
Hormonal changes, psychological factors, or physical issues may make it difficult to get or keep an erection.
If this becomes a regular occurrence, it may interfere with sexual intercourse or be a sign of an underlying issue.
Problems with ejaculation or ejaculate
Having difficulty ejaculating or noticing changes in the ejaculate, such as a drop in volume, may also be a sign of an underlying issue related to a man's fertility.
Changes in testicles
Healthy testicles are an important aspect of male fertility. Small or firm testicles that feel "tight" may be another sign of hormone issues.
On the other hand, swollen, painful, or tender testicles may be a sign of an underlying issue, such as an infection, that can also impact sperm quality and male fertility.
Research from 2015 noted that many studies link obesity in men with infertility.
Obesity can increase the risk for other conditions that may impact a man's fertility such as sperm quality and sexual dysfunction.

Other risk factors may also contribute to infertility in both men and women. These include:
smoking tobacco or marijuana
drinking alcohol
history of sexually transmitted infections
poor diet

When to see an healthcare giver
Anyone experiencing signs of infertility and who has been trying to conceive for more than a year (or 6 months if older than 35 years of age) may want to speak to a care provider for a thorough diagnosis.
Sometimes there may be simple ways to make lifestyle adjustments to improve fertility, while other underlying causes may require treatment.
Even after an infertility diagnosis, there may still be ways to conceive that people can discuss with their care provider.

Resources: healthline